A recent article on ComputerWeekly.com is calling for supercomputing to be put ‘in the curriculum’. In it, Tim Stitt, head of scientific computing at the Earlham Institute, a life science institute in Norwich, UK, says children should be learning supercomputing and data analysis concepts from a young age.
Although I agree in principle, the article doesn’t specify a particular curricula although it does seem to be aimed at pre-university ages. In the article, Stitt claims that current initiatives such as the new computing curriculum introduced in the UK in 2014 which makes it mandatory for children between the ages of five and 16 to be taught computational thinking, may “compound the issue”, as children will be taught serial rather than parallel programming skills, making supercomputing concepts harder to learn later on. Again, I can agree in principle, but the extent to which learning parallel programming after learning ‘normal’ sequential programming is debatable, and will certainly vary considerably from student to student.
I have mixed feeling about the word supercomputing. I can imagine someone saying “Really? You are going to teach supercomputing to kids? Don’t you think that’s a bit much?” I couldn’t blame them for being skeptical. The word itself sounds, well, super. Personally I think that High Performance Computing (HPC) is more down to earth, but I also concede that that may still sound a little ‘super’. I have some experience with this. I am one of many that maintain the Irish Supercomputer List. That project didn’t start off as the Irish Supercomputer List, but we changed the name in order to, quite frankly, be more media ‘friendly’. (Side note – interesting discussion on disseminating scientific work to the media here). Additionally, the Indian and Russian lists also have the word supercomputing in their names and/or URLs. The Top500 list also used the word supercomputing before they rebranded a few years back. Anyway…
So, what we are really talking about is putting Parallel Computing (or parallel programming) in the curriculum, and therefore opening the door to supercomputing, as almost all HPC installations require parallel programming. In fact the current Top500 Supercomputer List is composed entirely of clusters (86.2%) or Massively Parallel Processors (MPPs – 13.8%). Clusters are parallel computer systems comprising an integrated collection of independent nodes, each of which is a system in its own right, capable of independent operation and derived from products developed and marketed for other stand-alone purposes . MPPs (such as the IBM Blue Gene) on the other hand, are more tightly-integrated. Individual nodes cannot run on their own and they are frequently connected by custom high-performance networks. They key here is that in both cases memory is distributed (as are the cores), thus requiring parallel algorithms (and therefore parallel programming). Before switching gears I would like to return to the point I opened this paragraph with – we are talking about parallel programming – not necessarily supercomputing – although learning parallel computing is indeed the essential requirement to eventually program supercomputers.
At the university level, there is more than an awareness of the issues that form the core of the argument which is the focus of the article that I started this post with. In particular there are two conferences/workshops that directly address HPC education at university level:
- Workshop on Education for High-Performance Computing (EduHPC-16), held in conjunction with SC-16: The International Conference on High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage, and Analysis
- The Parallel and Distributed Computing Education for Undergraduate Students Workshop (Euro-EDUPAR 2016), held in conjunction with Euro-Par 2016, the 22nd International European Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing.
 Dongarra, J., Sterling, T., Simon, H. and Strohmaier, E., 2005. High-performance computing: clusters, constellations, MPPs, and future directions. Computing in Science and Engineering, 7(2), pp.51-59